In this comprehensive study, the effect of the interaction between tunnel lining and the surrounding medium on the monolithic tunnel lining (MTL) under earthquake loading is investigated using different methods including five analytical methods, quasi-static approach, and numerical simulation (time history) under full-slip and no-slip conditions considering. The results showed that the stress induced by seismic loads in tunnel lining in no-slip condition is approximately three times higher than that in the full-slip condition. The results also presented that numerical and quasi-static methods have a meaningful agreement with analytical methods under both conditions. In the next step, dynamic analysis of segmental tunnel lining (STL) was performed using Discrete Element Method (DEM), and the results was compared with the monolithic lining.. The resultsindicated that maximum stress in the MTL is more than STL, while the maximum strain in MTL is less than that in STL. This is occurred because joints in segmental lining reduce the lining stiffness. In other words, the rigidity increase in the supporting system is associated with a flexibility decrease in the lining with respect to rock medium.
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